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Principle of capture and variety in the development of systems. Introduction to the theory of capture. M.Rubin.

Principle of capture and variety in the development of systems.
Introduction to the theory of capture.
©M.Rubin, 2006, Saint-Petersburg
 
Introduction.
In TRIZ G.S. Altshuller first described the instrumental trends of engineering systems evolution. G.S. Altshuller and other researchers noted that many of the trends of evolution, which were formulated for engineering systems, are also applicable for describing other systems: biological, art, social, scientific, etc. Thus, the task was set, to find the reasons, due to which fairly different material and non-material systems have similar trends of evolution. In 2002 a supposition was made that the principle of “system-based capture”[1] could be looked upon as such motive force (though it is not the only motive force). Thus, the idea of system-based capture theory was set forth.
The theory of system-based capture is at the stage of formation.
Rather conventionally this article could be divided into three parts. First the examples of what we’re going to call capture phenomenon will be given. After that an attempt will be made to generalize the patterns of capture “reactions” and the models of system-based system-based capture will be given. At the end of the article examples will be given of how the principle of system-based capture could be used for considering theories of different levels: from biology to ethnogenesis. I thank N.Rubina and Yu.Murashkovsky for their assistance and persistence, without which this article would hardly ever be written.
 
1. Capture in material systems.
System-based capture shall be understood by us as any processes, implying that the elements of one system (object of capture) are converted into or become components of another system (subject of capture). In this case the object of capture could completely or partly lose the features of the former system or just the opposite, to retain them. In some cases capture appears to be mutually beneficial (for example, symbiosis of animals and plants), i.e., assisting in the existence and evolution of mutually capturing systems. The processes of system-based capture are observed in all systems from elementary particles and galaxies to calendars and civilizations. We shall quote examples of capture processes in fairly different material systems.
 
Example 1. The Milky Way “eats” Sagittarius.
The Milky Way "swallows up" its galactic neighbor – one of the galaxies of the constellation Sagittarius. According to Reuters, the scientists managed to get one of the proofs for this space "cannibalism". The astronauts managed to map the delineation of Sagittarius and to show in details, how it is gradually swallowed up by the milky Way, part of which is the planet Earth.
Sagittarius galaxy is our closest neighbor, however, it was discovered only in 1994. "Dwarf Sagittarius" is 10 times smaller than the Milky Way and under the action of its gravitation field the constellation is gradually getting elongated and torn and then is immediately swallowed up by its “heavier’ galaxy neighbor.
This fact was discovered by a group of scholars from the University of Virginia in 2003[2]
 Comment example 1. Subject capture – The Milky Way. Object of capture – galaxy «Dwarf Sagittarius». Capture is of irreversible nature. The object is destroyed, preserving only its elements (material of stars). Such capture could be characterized as absorption.
 
Example 2. Capture at the level of nuclear forces.
It is known that resting proton and electron, which stay at a significantly great distance one from another, as a result of electromagnetic interaction (attraction, capture) are integrated into a bonded system (hydrogen). Full energy of such a system is less than when were in a free state. Excessive energy is radiated in the form of quantums of electromagnetic energy – fotons. When the number of such reactions is high, tremendous amount of energy is released. This phenomenon is the basis for radiation of stars.
"The issue of the stars’ energy source was solved, though not in a simple way, after the discovery of nuclear energy.It became clear that the bonding energy per nuclon (proton or neutron – particles of which the nucleus of the atom is composed) grows from light chemical elements to heavy ones attaining its maximum with the iron, then it goes down to heavier elements. It means that the nuclear processes will develop with the release of energy, both during the decomposition of very heavy elements and during the synthesis of light elements into heavy ones. Energetically beneficial processes of decomposition are successfully used by humanity for producing energy at nuclear power plants. However, the reactions of synthesis, due to which the stars are shining, was heretofore implemented in its energetically beneficial variant only in the form of explosion in the most monstrous arms, which ever existed on Earth”.
 "If the resting proton and electron staying at a fairly long distance one from another, as a result of electromagnetic interaction (attraction) are united into an integrated system, the full energy of such system is less than it was, when they were in a free state. Excessive energy is radiated in the form of quantums of electromagnetic energy – fotons. The same happens as a result of spontaneous transition of an electron from the higher Bohr level of energy to a lower one. (Bohr levels of hydrogen energy completely and unequivocally determine the location of its spectral lines). It means, that in order to destroy such a bonded system (to tear an electron away from proton, i.e., to ionize the atom of hydrogen), it is necessary to spend some energy. Moreover, according to the conclusions of a special theory of relativity, such a bonded system has a lower weight than its components had in a state of rest.”[3]
Comment to Example 2. Subject of capture is a proton. Object of capture is an electron. The capture is of reversible character. The object is not destroyed. A qualitatively new system is generated – hydrogen with release of energy.
 
Example 3.Gravitational capture of the planets.
Triton is a satellite of Neptun Like Earth, Triton has a nitrogen atmosphere and 0.7 of it consists of hard rocks, while 0.3 of it is water. There are huge rocks on Triton, which are carbved by the water ice as well as an endless number of craters. The size of the biggest satellite of the planet - Triton – is close to the size of the Moon, while in terms of weight it is 3.5 times inferior to the Moon. Triton has a high reflectivity - 60-90% (the Moon has 12%), since it is mostly composed of water ice[4].
Craig Agnor from the University of California, Santa Cruz) and Douglas Hamilton from the University of Maryland developed a new model, which enables to explain the capture of large satellites by gigantic planets to the retrograde orbits.
Triton is one of the biggest satellites in the Solar system and the biggest “retrograde” satellite. A retrograde orbit means that it rotates around Neptune in the direction, which is opposite to the rotation of the planet and also to the rotation of planets around the Sun.
Such an orbit is a true feature of a gravitational capture. Triton obviously had to be captured by a gas giant during the early period of Solar system evolution. However, the mechanism of such capture is not fully clear as yet. Especially taking into account the big size of Triton and the parameters of its orbit. For smaller retrograde satellites the former capture mechnisms were satisfactory, but not for Triton.  
To "place" Triton in its present position the astronomers even tried apply the “strike” of a smaller body against it. However, the calculations showed that a too small “planetlet” would not provide for a required pulse, while a bigger one would simply destroy Triton.
Now the riddle seems to be solved. The American scientists demonstrated that the capture of Triton is performed smoothly and reliably, if we suppose that at that moment it was one of two bodies, constituting a pair, like , for example, Pluto and Charon.
There is an indirect evidence to the fact that such pairs are widely spread and that they were formed frequently, and that is not only the existence of Pluto and Charon, but also the presence of many satellites with big bodies within Keuper’s belt.
The calculation showed, when the pair approaches Neptune, Triton easily transcended to its former orbit, while its companion either flew away from the solar system, or struck against a gas giant (against Neptune, or – a little bit later – unto another gigantic planet)[5].
Comment to Example 3. Subject of capture is Neptune. Object of capture is a Triton. Capture is of irreversible nature. The object is partially destroyed – only Triton remains instead of the double systems. A new system is generated – Neptune with a satellite.
 
Example 4. Capture at the level of Protozoa animals.
Amoeba is the simplest one-cellular animal, relating to the type of Protozoa.
The shape of its body is changeable. Way of nutrition:[6], capturing the food with pseudopodiae. With the most primitive representatives of amoebae and shell amoebas only sexless reproduction through mythosis division of cells is observed. The habitation environment is sweet and salty waters. Parasitic forms are encountered among amoebas. In fact it is possible to speak about the fact that amoeba, which could be seen millions of years ago and the one that can be seen today is one and the same animal. all rhyzopods feed themselves through fagocytosis
In the picture it is shown, how amoeba hunts. It stretches its pseudopodiae, which embrace something eatable for amoeba[7].
Comment to Example 4. Subject of capture is the microorganism amoeba. Object of capture are bacteria and organic substances. The capture is of irreversible nature. The object is completely destroyed. The capture is of absorption type.
Example 5. Crusade of Alexander the Great – capture of states
In the middle of the IV-th century B.C. Greece suffered from endless wars between the city-states Athens, Sparta, Thebes, etc. It happened that the poor people, who were deprived of everything, and the hired warriors captured the power in separate cities, executing the local rich and dividing their property. 
Some of the slave-owners proposed to organize a crusade against a great Persian power, which was weakened by the rebellions of the conquered peoples. Homeless poor Greeks could populate the captured Eastern lands, while new slaves and wealths could also be captured there. However prior to starting the crusade to Persia, it was necessary to unite the separated Grecian cities into one union. The dream of Grecian slave-owners was put into life by the king of Macaedonia Phyllypus the Second (359—336 B.C.). The deed, started by him, was continued by his son Alexander.
The entire history of conquests of Alexander the Great and of creation of Hellenist states[8] is a chain with many links reflecting the tendency to capture different groups of people living in these new lands, the slaves, the power and values. Later on, these states were themselves captured by Rome. (Large Soviet encyclopedia. History of human society, article “Alexander of Macedonia” , LSE).
A comment to example 5. Subject of capture is the troops and the culture of Greece, the principle figure in which is Alexander the Great. The Object of capture is territories, people and resources of other states. The capture is of partly reversible character (in social systems there are no fully reversible processes). The object of capture is partly destroyed, and is partly enriched by new technologies and culture. A qualitatively new system is generated – a proto-empire.
 
Example 6. Plants and animals capture the surface of the Earth.
First I planned, while choosing an example of plants leaving the ocean to live on earth, to select psilophites and rhyniophytes[9], the remainders of which are known in Silur, low and middle Devon. There are all reasons to assume, that rhyniophytes are source ancestor group, from which descended bryophitic plants, lycopsids, articulates and ferns.
Or it is possible to briefly mention crossopterigii a kind of fishes[10] and their representative Latimeria chalumnae). The first crossopterigii are known from the low Devon, they almost entirely perished in the late Cretacious period. Having the length from 7 to 5 meters, they were not prone to motion and spent most of the time at the bottom, along which they moved, being propped up by powerful fins. According to modern ideas, at the end of Devon first amphibians originated from sweet water crossopterigii — ripidistia.
In reality, for the life to transcend from water to the earth, it was necessary for plants and animals to solve numerous problems. Not only plants and animals changed, but also the soil and the composition of atmosphere[11]. It was a long and complicated process of capturing new resources – the surface of the earth. The amount of such resources in the ocean was already insufficient.
What enabled plants and animals to capture the land? As of today, approximately 99.8% of the entire biomass of the Earth is situated on its surface. The use of solar energy for photo-synthesis on the surface of the earth is 250% higher than in the ocean.
Comment to Example 6. The subject of capture are plants and animals of the ocean. The object of capture are the surface of the Earth and its atmosphere. The capture is practically irreversible. Object of capture is partly changed. Subject of capture is significantly changed (is adapted).
 
Example 7. Capture at the enterprises producing goods and offering services.
Enterprising activity offers numerous examples of legal (market-oriented), semi-legal[12] and illegal capture.
History of trade (exchange of goods) could be traced back to the end of Neolith – V-IV thousand B.C., when cattle –breeding and ploughing earth became separated, the formation of the cities started, technologies began to develop and private property appeared.
The names of the most successful enterprisers and industrialists are well known in the whole world: Henry Ford, Walt Disney, Bill gates, Raymond Crock and Macdonalds’ Brothers, Donald Trump, Thomas Edison, Alfred Nobel and many others. Each of them managed to create a new product or service, which elbowed out the proposals of other enterprisers from the market.
As there are always weeds on the fields with culture plants, there are always enterprisers, who would like to capture the enterprises, created by others. Practically not a single enterprise cannot be sure that it won’t ever be attacked by professional raiders[13]. Even such formidable enterprises of war industry like LLC “MIG-98” or Research institute of Bus Industry can be attacked.
Comment to Example 7. The subject of capture is an enterpriser and his business. The object of capture is a competitor at the market. The object of capture could be elbowed out from the market completely or partially. It is necessary to single out two forms of processes of capture in business. One of them is associated with the interaction with the subjects of the market – users of goods and services. Less advantageous proposals will be simply rejected by the market. The second is associated with attacks against both the business itself, and its structures.
 
2. Phenomena of capture in non-material systems.

It could be possible to continue enumerating numerous examples of capture, which could be observed in the course of evolution and existence of any material systems. The origins of the human, of the human mind and civilization led to the development of another type of systems – non-material ones. We are talking about such systems as science, art, religion, technologies, language, and many others. First of all, let us emphasize the fact that each of the above-listed fields of human activity is a self-contained system. The language, for example, has its independent elements – sounds, syllables, sentences. Respectively, the sections of linguistics correspond to these elements: phonetics, morphology, syntax. There are bonds between the elements of this system (of the language). The elements of the language, being integrated, create a new quality – the speech, which is necessary for communication between the humans. All this is proof of the fact that the language is a system. And this system, as we well know, is in constant motion. We could say the same about other non-material systems. Art, as developing non-material system is analyzed, for example, in the works of Yu.S.Murashkovsky.

All non-material systems could be united into one notion – culture. It is possible to analyze the culture of a group of people, ethnos, state, etc. Culture is what makes civilization different from a hoard of beasts, a colony of ants or a swarm of bees.
A model of civilization development is given below. The society, acting upon the environment (initially this is a natural environment) gradually creates it s own artificial habitation medium. Human society gradually captures the natural environment[14] and converts into a medium of its own habitation. In contrast to the evolution of animals and plants, this process is characterized by tremendous importance of culture, i.e., the integration of all those non-material systems, which were already discussed above. It is necessary to clearly distinguish between non-material systems and their carriers. For example, there is a language and there are its carriers – speakers of this language. There are theories and there are carriers, on which these theories are recorded. Material and non-material systems could closely interact one with another. In business, for example, it is possible to draw a distinct boundary between material assets (machines, buildings, office facilities, etc.) and non-material assets (intellectual property proprietary rights, etc.) of one and the same business. There are kinds of business, in which the share of material assets is fairly small, for example, law companies, consulting companies, etc.
Non-material systems play a significant role in the processes of capture with material systems, for example, as it is done in business. But the non-material systems themselves could capture or be captured by other non-material systems. Let us quote several examples.
 
Example 8. Ideologies – battlefield for theories and people
One of Hellenistic states was the kingdom of Ptolemeus in Egypt. The last queen in the Ptolemei dynasty was Cleopatra VII. It is possible that the famous Greek and Egyptian astronomer, astrologist, mathematician, geographer and optician Claudius Ptolemeus, who created the geocentric system of the Universe, also belonged to Ptolemei dynasty. Ptolemeus at bottom discarded the greater part of tradition, existing in astrology and astronomy, the inheritor of which he actually was. He put in order all astronomic observations, known in Ancient Egypt, which had been associated only with the ruling dynasties before. He was the first to discard the idea of regularity in the motion of planets and rejected the model of Aristoteles, which includes, for example, more than 50 material spheres.
The scheme of Ptolemeus was the first example of organizing a natural history knowledge into a theory: it was based on a kinematic model, explaining the irregularities in the motion of planets and enabling, using trigonometry, to predict the position of the celestial body at the level of accuracy equal to 10'. Ptolemeus is known as a representative of the theory of geocentrism, however, it was proved that all instances of mentioning the heliocentric system were carefully deleted from the text of his works. The texts of Ptolemeus served as a foundation of astronomy almost for a thousand and a half years! No wonder that the theory that captured the minds of the people, which constituted part of their mentality, could be substituted by other theories only as a result of tremendous effort of the scientists.
Still more than one hundred years passed already after the development of heliocentric system by Nickolaus Copernicus, before the theory of Ptolemeus started to cause doubts. The life of Giordano Bruno, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler and of many other scientists was converted by the clericals into a real battle for the right to have other outlooks on the structure of the Universe.[15].
Comment to Example 8. Subject of capture – heliocentric theory of Copernicus. Object of capture – the geocentric theory of Ptolemeus – remains without changes (the theory is known, it could be read, it could be studied). Subject of capture uses the elements of object of capture (methods of research and astronomic observations). Capture has the nature of elbowing out: it is more convenient to use a new theory, while the previous theory is gradually sent to oblivion. A new system (new theory) appears, which had not existed before.
Example 9. Crusades and capture of power and lands.
Military crusades of West European feudals took place in 1096—1270 under the mask of religious catholic slogans. The reason for intrusion into the area of Eastern region of Mediterranean coast was the capture by seljuck turks of numerous byzantian lands in the Lower Asia during the last third of 11th century, as well as of Jerusalem, which, according to the clerical Christian tradition was “the sacred city” of the Christians. Byzantium many times addressed the West for military help against seljuck turks. The Popedom made use of that.
The initiator of the crusades was first the Catholic Popedom in the person of the Pope Urban II at the Clermont convocation in November 1095. He said: "All those who are on the way there, in case of their death, will have the absolution. Let the people, who have got used to lead wars against Christians – people of the same faith with them – now attack the unfaithful in a battle, which will yield numerous tropheys. That land is flowing with milk and honey. Let those, who were robbers, who fought against brothers and people from their tribes, now become warriors. Who is woeful here, will be rich there". The speech of the Pope was interrupted by the shouts of the onlookers: "The god himself wants that!". 
The Popes wanted to cause a wave of religious fanatism, in order to strengthen and widen the influence of Catholic church, to achieve the subjection of the Orthodox church to Rome. Eight crusades were organized to their calls, and the very word “crusade” became a proper noun meaning “capturing actions under noble slogans[16].
Comment to Example 9. Subject of capture are feudals headed by Catholic church. Object of capture is Byzantium lands, wealth and the development of Catholic influence. Attempts of capture, which had lasted for more than 200 years, changed goals and motives and had a rather doubtful success for all participants of the conflict.
Example 10. New ideas in chemistry elbow out the former theories.
In the 17-18th centuries a theory appeared, which described the processes of burning. This theory was very important for the development of industry. It made the typical burning processes nearer to the phenomena, which were observed during the tempering and calcinations (oxidation) of metals. A possibility appeared to explain different phenomena, associated with burning, from one and the same standpoint. The theory, which was promising at that time, stimulating the search for really scientific explanations of the phenomenon of burning and became a bridge between the vanishing alchemy and the emerging chemistry. This theory dominated over the minds of great scientists, like Rutherford and others.
This capturing and influential theory was created by the German doctor and chemist Georg Ernst Stahl (1660 – 1734), and this theory was called the flogiston theory. Flogiston (from the Greek word phlogistos – enflaming, combustible), according to the ideas of the chemists of the end of 17th century - turn of the 18th century, "initiator of combustibility", hypothetical constituent of substances, which they were thought to loose during combustion and annealing.
The influence of the theory was so strong that the scientists did not want to pay attention to obvious contradictions. For example, if flogiston was a volatile “material substance”, why doesn’t the weight of the metal decrease, but on the contrary, increases in annealing? Flogiston has no weight, answered the defenders of the theory. «Material substance» has no weight? – the skeptics asked in surprise. «It has a negative weight» – said Stahl’s disciple Johann Junker. Though nobody ever saw material substances with negative weight, nevertheless flogiston theory was acknowledged by many eminent scientists. Moreover, there were attempts to visualize the negative weight of flogiston[17].
Here is a quotation from the letter of Macaire – one of the most famous chemists of his time – a letter related to 1778:
“Mr. Lavoisier for long time frightened me with a certain great discovery, which he holds in petto and which is going to — it is almost unbelievable! — at last destroy the theory of flogiston; I simply die from fear, seeing his assuredness. You just imagine, where shall we go with our old traditional chemistry, if we have to rebuild the entire building anew? I have to admit, I was completely discouraged! Mr. Lavoisier made his discovery public — and I assure you: I had a feeling of relief”.
In 1783 Lavoisier printed his “Thoughts on flogiston”. Based on his discoveries, he proves the complete uselessness of flogiston theory. Without this the facts are explained easily and simply; with the origination of this theory an endless jumble started. (M.A. Engelhardt. “A.L. Lavoisier. His life and scientific activity”).
Lavoisier theory gradually elbowed out the flogiston theory from the positions, which it occupied for almost 100 years.
Comment to Example 10. Subject of capture – Lavoisier combustion theory. Object of capture is the flogiston theory of G.E. Stahl. The capture has the nature of substitution – the new theory started to be used due to its simplicity and absence of contradictions.
Example 11. Capture of calendar.
Almost each of old nations had its calendar and conducted the counting of years from a certain definite moment, according to their era. The chroniclers of each country marked the dates of historical events according to these marks on time scales. The scientists know several hundreds of different eras.
One of the oldest eras relates to a definite date — Wednesday, February 26, 747 year B.C. On this day the Babylonian King Nabonessar came to the throne. His name would have been long forgotten, if the Babylonian priests did not mark the results of their astronomic observations according to the era of Nabonassar. Later on this era was used by the scientist Claudius Ptolemaeus (2nd century A.C.) for compilation of his “Canon of the kings”. This chronological list embraced about 900 years.
In the 4th century, during the rule of the emperor Constantine Christianity became the dominating religion in the Roman empire. In 325 the leaders of the church decided that the main Christian holiday – Easter – should be started on Sunday after the first spring full Moon. Every year this full Moon coincides with a different date. Therefore the time table of Easter days was compiled for many years ahead.
A thought once dawned upon the learned monch Dionisius the Small: why do Christians count the years from the date when the emperor Diokletianus came to the throne? Would not it be better to calculate a new Easter time-table in the years, which have passed since the birth of Christ? Naturally, nobody was able to indicate exactly, in what year Jesus Christ was born. The Christians borrowed the birth date of their God from the Persian religion. Old Persians believed that their God of the Sun — Mitra was born on December 25. On this day (according to Julian calendar) winter conjunction came, after which the days start to become longer, — it means that the solar Mitra conquers the dark forces. Later on, the Christians associated the day of the birth of Christ with December 25, while nobody was interested to know, in which year the Savior was born.
Neither did Dionisius shoulder the burden of useless research. Without furnishing any explanations he started anew Easter time-table since the year of 532 — “from the birth of Christ” . Dionisius himself never supposed that the era composed by him would serve as the start of a new system of time counting; he invented it only for Easter time-tables. And more than 1000 years passed before Dionisius era (as it should be called) was accepted by all European states. This is the so-called new era (A.C.), which is used by us now as a frame of time reference[18].
Comment to Example 11. Subject of capture is Christian calendar. Object of capture is the time-table of the Emperor Diokletianus. Capture consists in the absorption of the calendar throughout the territory of roman empire and gradual elbowing out to the territories of other states.
 
Example 12. Capture of holidays and traditions.
With the changes of religion and ideology of the state a necessity appears from time to time to create new holidays. In this case usually two goals are targeted. On the one hand, it is necessary to do away with the previous, wrong holiday, and on the other hand, a new - “right’ holiday should be created. It happens very often that a new holiday is created in the place of the old one. It is done for the purpose of erasing the old holiday from the memory of the people, retaining a possibility to have a holiday in its usual time. Such examples are numerous both in history and in the modern life.
We wrote already (in Example 11), about the ancient eastern God Mitra. It is one of the main Indo-Iranian Gods, the god of agreement, the benefactor of peaceful and kind relationships between the people. In Iranian tradition Mitra guarantees stability of civilized relationships between people, guards the countries, where the agreements are adhered to and punishes the countries, where the agreements are violated. Later on, the solar function of Mitra began to play the most important role. Mitra cult was rather popular in the Roman Empire during the first years A.C., especially among the legionnaires[19]. Sacrifices of animals, especially bulls were especially important in Mitra cult. Plants grew from the blood of killed bull and it increased the fruitfulness of soil.
One of the important pagan holidays of ancient Rus – Korotchun also coincides with this date (winter solstice of December 24).
Since the year of 532 the birthday of Mitra is also celebrated as the Day of Christ birth.
One more influential pagan god of the Slavs was Perun[20]. That was the most important god of Eastern Slavs, the god of thunder and lightning, who was identified with Zeus and Jupiter. The word Perun was derived from the sanscrit stem "par" and is compared with the name of the Indian god Indra - Parjanya-parganya (lightning-carrying cloud). Perun is a powerful and executing god; its appearance excites fear and tremble. Animals, children and prisoners were sacrificed to him.
After Russia was converted to Christianity the cult God Perun started to be annihilated, and the people, who worshipped him started to be prosecuted. Orthodox churches were built at the places of worshipping Perun. Ilya Prophet and Jurius the Brave were worshipped during Christianity period instead of Perun.
The orthodox Day of the holy Trinity (Pentecost - the fiftieth day after the resurrection of Christ) owes its rituals to pagan traditions («Eastertide», «Green Trinity») and Jewish holiday of reaping and to the memory of Sinai legislation.
The holiday of the Russian Orthodox church The Birth of St. John the Baptist (it was the Christian prophet, who predicted the advent of Jesus Christ) in the pagan Rus is the holiday of Midsummer Night (also known as Prazdnik Ivana Kupala)[21].
Comment to Example 12. Subject of capture is Christan holidays. Object of capture are pagan traditions and holidays. The capture bears the character of absorption.
 
Example 13. Informational capture.
It is possible to assert that information captures started at the moment when first viruses appeared, which, interfering with the program of DNA functioning, recreate themselves in another organism. In our time the notions of information capture and information war have entered the everyday language. Articles in newspapers and magazines, TV programs, publications in Internet and even SMS-messages have become a real weapon for attainment of this or that goal. According to the information from the information site vnunet.com every 9 personal computers out of 10 are infected with espionage programs. We shall quote only one out of numerous examples of information captures.
From the information piece «Web-site Capture.ru has been broken» dated 15.06.2005, 18:24, Text - Webplanet
«Yesterday the web-site «.», devoted to unfriendly restructuring of property in Russia was broken. Until today the site was unable to restore its functioning.
According to «.», the deputy editor-in-chief of the site Andrej Chuckalov has no doubts about the fact that the hackers’ attack was the answer to the publication concerning the capture of «Research Institute of Bus Industry» (RIBI). Unknown hackers disabled the resource almost immediately after this article appeared there.
We would like to remind the reader that «Capture.» is the product of Internet community, consisting of professional layers, dealing with the development of patterns for unfriendly absorptions.
The topic of RIBI bankruptcy has become one of the most scandalous at the market of unfriendly property restructuring».
Comment to Example 13. Subject of capture are hackers subject to organizers of capture of «Research Institute of Bus Industry» (RIBI). Object of capture is the web-site Capture.». The capture of site is of temporary character.
 
 
Example 14. Capture of influence through laws.
«Lykúrgos, the legendary Spartan legislator (9—8 centuries B.C.) (Ancient Greece). The facts from Lykúrgos life are different and contradictory. The Grecian authors of 5—4 centuries B.C. ascribe to Lykúrgos the creation of institutes of Spartan social and state structure, the actual formation of which was the result of long-term historical process of transition of transition from the primitive communal order of life to class society... In Sparta existed a special cult of Lykúrgos.»[22]
«Lykúrgos thought that the death of a social figure should be useful to the state. Death should be a dignified end of life. Having said good bye to his friends and son, Lykúrgos refused to take food and soon died from hunger. Here was afraid that his remainders would be carried to Sparta and the citizens would consider themselves free from their oath. Therefore prior to his death he ordered to burn his corps and to throw ashes into the sea.
Hopes did not deceive Lykúrgos. While Sparta adhered to his laws, for many years it remained one of the strongest states of Greece. Only at the end of 5th century B.C. , when greediness and inequality in wealth penetrated Greece, the laws of Lykúrgos suffered a serious blow.»[23]
Comment to Example 14. Subject of capture is Lykúrgos the legislator. Object of capture is the laws of Sparta. Sparta lived according to the laws of Lykúrgos for 400 years.
Example 15. Capture of ideas of youth movement.
Unusual transformations of scouts in the USSR.
Viewpoint of USSR ideologists:
«Scoutism (derived from the word scout), one of the most widely spread systems of bourgeois non-school upbringing, which is the base of children’s and youth scouting organizations. The goal of S. is the upbringing of young generation in the spirit of faithfulness to the ideals of bourgeois society. Proclaiming officially the “party neutrality”, boyscout organizations are characterized in reality by explicit political, militarist and religious tendencies; they tend to deviate the younger generation from participation in struggle for revolutionary and democratic reforms, to isolate it from the influence of materialism and communism. S. implements the idea of “class peace” in the capitalist state… The origination of S. dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. The main ideas of S. were developed by the British colonel R. Baden-Powell (1857—1941)… In Russia first scouts detachments were created in Tsarskoye Selo (now called Pushkin) in 1909. In 1914 according to the decree of Nicholas II the society “Russian Scout” was established for the purpose of bringing up the young people in the spirit of tsarist chauvinism and militarism, faithfulness to the monarchic order”.[24]
From the publications at the Central Server of Russian Scouts (2004)[25]
“For the first time after the victory of the Bolshevist revolution, the new government wanted to win the support of the “young scouts”, feeling that they are rather popular among the young people. In 1918 the minister of Health Nickolai Semashko and the minister of education anatoliy Lunatcharsky stepped forward with the proposal: the boyscouts could take part in the creation of a new children’s organization "The Red Scouts", which would be directed by the Young Communist League (Komsomol). 
After difficult discussions new children’s groups appeared – young communists (YC), who copied the organizational system of boyscouts, while in 1922 they were replaced by pioneers”.
“Having easily copied the attributes, the rules und traditions of scouting, however, having left its spirit and its meaning “beyond the frames”, the pioneer movement, being assisted by the state in the 1920-ies was quickly gaining power. More often than not calls were heard for elimination of competitors. The pioneers, who knew very little about scouts, sincerely thought that they have nothing in common with these self-conceited boys in their ridiculous shorts, children of bourgeois, who had escaped extermination and agents of Entente. Very soon the boyscouts’ organizations were prohibited in Russia and then they were completely forgotten”.
“It appears that the bundle on the pioneer tie – “a symbol of unbreakable unity of the communist Party, YCL and pioneers” for a scout means only the memory of a kind deed, which he performed during the daytime – the untying of the ribbon in the evening without recollecting a kind deed is just indecent. And the call "Be ready!" is a scouts’ greeting, which has nothing in common with the struggle for the cause of the Communist Party. The horn, the drum, campfire tradition and a solemn oath – all these attributes were borrowed from the scouts already at the turn of the 20th century”.
From the publications on Scouts in the Ukraine (2006)[26]:
«The other day I witnessed, how the Ukrainian youth organization “Plast” defended its rights to be included within the World organization of scout movement. A competing organization was SPOK — abbreviation for the Ukranian word combination “ ” (“Union of Kiev Pioneer Organizations”). At the conference in UNIAN, which took place last week, the representatives of “Plast” tried to prove that, first of all, they have more rights for entering the World scouting organization and, secondly, SPOK practically did not do anything for the development of this movement in the Ukraine, they simply borrowed the developments of other organizations”.
Comment to Example 15. In this Example it is necessary to single out two fairly different types of capture.
1. Subject of capture –general, sir R.Baden-Powell, hero of Anglo-Boer war and his methodology, quoted in the “Manual of social and practical self-upbringing of the Youth”. Object of capture is the young generation and its followers in different countries. Scouting movement was formed, which has been actively developing almost for more than 100 years. Character of capture – free, self-evolving, creative.
2. Subject of capture – government of ideologists of the USSR. Object of capture – scout movement in Russia. Character of capture – absorption: prohibition of scoutism in the country and creation of the pioneer organization. Use and distortion of scouts idea. The pioneer organization ceased to exist with the collapse of the USSR. 
 
3. Capture at the levels of onthogenesis and philogenesis .
Capture could be subdivided into two types: at the level of onthogenesis and philogenesis. The first type is associated with the activity of particular systems, while the second type is connected with the historical evolution of systems. For example, capture by a pride of lions, a pack of wolves or by a bear of a certain habitation (and nutrition) territory is a capture at the level of onthogenesis. Capture by plants and animals of the Earth territory is an example of capture at the level of philogenesis. Capture at the level of onthogenesis is a capture of maintaining systems in integrated state. Capture at the level of philogenesis is the development of systems, creation of a new structure and associations between the components of the system for the sake of attining new capture opportunities.
There were cases, when system-based philigenesis and system-based onthogenesis coincide. For example, with unicellular animals (Example 4) or with the theory (Example 8).
 
4. Capture and expenditures
Any capture process is accompanied by initial expenditures. It could be seen in any of examples of capture process from amoeba and galaxies to theories and art. Lykúrgos, for example, sacrificed his life for preserving the laws of Sparta for several centuries (Example 14).
Capture process could be characterized by a capture of resources: material (substance and fields), energy, space, information and time. For instance, in Eample 11 (calendars) time is captured, while in example 5 (crusades of Alexander the Great) – space, time and material. Capture is always associated with several parameters of capture (or with all of them simultaneously).
The expenditures on capture could also be characterized by the same parameters of resources: material (substance and fields), energy, space, information and time. As a result of capture of galaxy, for example (Example 1), potential gravitational energy of interaction of two galaxies, while for the capture of a new market by business it is necessary to have initial investments – material (material assets), time, information (non-material assets) and current expenditures.
Relationships between resources spent on capture, and captured resources demonstrates the efficiency of this or that capture. The higher the amount of captured resources as related to spent resources, the more efficient is the capture. Relationship of efficiency could be mono-parametrical (by one parameter – energy, time, space, etc.) and poly-parametrical (by several parameters simultaneously). For example, capture of Ptolemeus systems (example 8) in time could be evaluated as a fraction
 (1500 years of use) / (30 years of Ptolemeus research) = 50.
Such high efficiency of capture is associated first of all with the high efficiency of performance of Ptolemeus system main function – it was much more precise than what had been known previously. 
systems of fairly different nature could be compared between themselves in terms of capture efficiency. Captures, which are efficient according to one of the parameters could appear to be inefficient according to another parameter. Thus, processes of resources transformation could be observed in the processes of capture. For example, transformation of substance into energy, energy into space, time into information, etc. It is possible to assume, for example, that the natural resources of the USSR (wood, oil, etc.) were transformed into such organizations as a Pioneer organization.
Capture efficiency could be absolute (in absolute values of resource parameters) or relative – as related to the absolute efficiency of such systems. For example, positive efficiency of capture in terms of energy in sea plants (they spend less than capture) appear to be inefficient of compared to plants, which grow on earth (Example 6).
With captures of absorption type (Examples 1, 4 and others) it is efficient for subject of capture , while for object of capture irt is inefficient. It means that capture efficiency depends upon the fact, from what viewpoint it is evaluated. With captures of exchange type (symbiosis) capture efficiency is approximately identical with subject and object of capture.
Expenditures (absorption of resources) are necessary not only for capture, but also for the preservation of integrity of the system itself and for resisting the attempts of external captures. If these resources are insufficient, the system gets collapsed (See Example 15 concerning the pioneer organization in the USSR). Thus, the efficiency values characterizing the systems should be determined taking into account not only the direct expenditures on capture, but also the expenditures on self-preservation and functioning. With business, for example, it would be appropriate to say that in the determination of efficiency of business systems it is necessary to take into account not only investment expenditures, but also alternating and constant expenditures[27] on conducting business.
 
5. System of capture and environment
System of capture – is a subject of capture, object of capture, interconnection between them and the process of their interconnection in time and space. This system could be looked upon both in isolation and in interaction with external environment. For example, in Example 1 the capture by the galaxy of the Milky Way of another galaxy (Example 1) with a certain degree of conventionality could be looked upon as a closed system. While the system «holidays and traditions” (Example 12) is an open system, which could evolve only in interaction with external environment.
With closed systems the overall indicator of capture efficiency in terms of parameters of material and energy is equal to one, i.e., neither material, not energy is emitted into external environment. If the overall indicator of efficiency of system-based capture is less than one, this is a capture with absorption of external resources. If it is higher than one, this is a capture, involving the emittance of resources into external environment. (Example 2). 
A tendency to increase capture efficiency leads to the search for most efficient types (models of reaction) of capture. From the forced capture systems a transition is made to “free-will” and mutually profitable capture; from the capture of substance to capture of fields; from absorption to information-and-management capture.
 
6. Models of capture
With evolving systems[28] it is possible to single out only one common feature – the presence of capture mechanisms. These mechanisms could be formed spontaneously as a result of synergetic processes or target-oriented (consciously or inadvertently). In this or that way this feature is inherent for all systems. It could be said that the evolution of systems is a transition from one of its embodiments to another with more efficient mechanisms of capture (less expenditures at a more intensive capture).
As a minimum model of systems it is possible to use a Su-Field, which includes two elements, which are interconnected. At the moment of system formation there is only one element. If it has not got any features, which are necessary for forming bonds (fields), it is capable neither of capture, nor of being captured by another element.
Let us quote several examples of capture models.
1. Reaction of capture involving the absorption (addition) of the object of capture.
One system (subject) absorbs (adds to itself) another system emitting or absorbing external resources (material, energy, information, substance and time) – examples 1, 3, 11, etc. 
Ss + So = S's (r↓↑), where
Ss – subject of capture
So – object of capture
S's - subject of capture, which has acquired a new quality after capture 
(r↓↑) – balance of resource during the reaction of capture (with absorption or emittance of resource).
Abstract formulae are easily perceived on an example of usual situations from everyday life, which are well familiar to us. For example, if Ss is understood as one family with its property, while So is understood as another family, then as a result of capture the family So is destroyed, while its property becomes a property of the family Ss. In this case there could be both losses and acquisitions.
2. Reaction of capture through displacement (substitution) based on the struggle for the limiting factor of development.
It is possible to single out two types of limiting factor. The first is associated with the restrictions imposed upon the requirements of supersystem, which consumes (uses) the analyzed system. For example, theory or other intellectual property usually does not require additional resources for multiplying. Restriction consists in the people, who either use these intekllectual products or not.
The second part of restrictions is associated with the subsystem – restricted resources, used for the construction of the system. For example, any ecological pyramid is based on the hierarchy of accessible resources. Grass generates an ecological niche for the hare, the hare – for the fox, etc. Displacement from the resource ecological niche automatically restricts the development of system, which feeds itself within this niche.
Ss + (Lf−So) = (Lf'−S's)+(Lf''−S'o), (r↓↑),   where
Lf (limiting factor) – limiting factor Ss or So  
 Lf' and Lf'' – characteristics of limiting factor after capture with Ss and So
 System So could be ultimately completely displaced.
For example, the family Ss could start to manufacture carpets at home and start to sell them with greater success than the family So. Or another variant: family Ss could acquire the house, land or cattle belonging to the family So. It could also strongly influence the fate of these two families.
3. Capture due to separating the system, its decomposition into several ones (internal capture)
So → S's + S''s + Lf (r↓↑),   where
So – source system;
S's –new system, which has taken a part of system So (it could have the name of old system)
S''s – one more new system, which borrowed a component of system So
L– additional resources (limiting factors), which are attracted by the newly-formed entity.
For example, each family could collapse. There are fairly many variants for collapse of the family. Such things happen fairly often in a pride of lions or in a pack of wolves, when young wolves or lions become leaders and the old leader is left alone. In this case the space is broadened as well as the range of ecological resources (Lf), attracted by this newly-formed entity. 
4. Reaction of capture with exchange (including symbiosis)
Ss + So = (S's + S'o) (r↓↑), where
S'o - object of capture acquires a new features after capture
It is possible to single out several types of exchange processes:
- what is useless for Ss is useful for So , while what is useless for So is useful for Ss;
- what is useless for Ss is useful for So , while what is useful for So is partly transferred to Ss;
- what is useful for Ss is partly transferred to So , while what is useful for So is partly transferred to Ss;
If we go back to the example with rwo families, in this case they can exchange products, property, technologies or they could become relatives through their children. Each will keep his or her family, will get something useful and can loose something. In this case one family S's could dominate over another.
5. Fruitful capture – synthesis of a new system from the components.
This type of capture could be characterized by several features. Subject of capture in this case does not hinder or even assists the development of capture object. What earlier did not attract anyone, becomes an object of capture. Supersystem is created from existing systems (new system),which evolves itself and assists the evolution of systems, which are included into it. Captured systems are not destroyed, while are used as "ready" entities, involving the introduction of tools for controlling them.
For example, the formation of the planet Earth led (as a result of geochemical processes) to a chain in the evolution of substance, which simply had not existed at the earlier stages of the evolution of our planet (even water, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon existed only in bonded state in the form of hydroxides, graphite, etc.). No entities before the origination of life on earth neede dcarbon – it existed in profusion. When the surface of the Earth was conquered by plants, such resource as territory was not claimed by any entities. At the same time it does not mean that such integration develops with “profits” for the systems being integrated and without losses for these systems. Restrictions occur for the sake of supersystem development. The integration of North and South of the USA, as it is known, did not evolve smoothly, however generated a serious potential of development. The integration of Russian dukedoms was even bloody – each duke considered himself to be more important than another.
Schematically this reaction of capture could be designated like this
So1+ So2+So3+…+ Son = (S'o1+ S'o2+S'o3+…+ S'on) + Ss + Lf (r↓↑)  
For example, two or more families could be integrated into a tribe or form another system, which is useful for them. The integration could be timely or permanent – depending upon the goal of this integration.
 
Classification of capture processes could also be based on other features, for example, values Ss and So , to be exact, the value of parameters, which characterize these two systems. The comparison could be made based on dimensions, energy and other characteristics. A bog object could capture a small one and vice versa. The table below contains a possible classification based on the character of interaction between subject and object of capture:
Object
Subject
Big
Small
Big
Of equal significance
Dominating
Small
Fearless David
Of equal significance
Classification of capture processes could also be based on characteristics (features) of elements, which are included with Ss and So, and on the nature of interaction fields, and on the nature of influence of external environment, and on the method of reproduction (multiplication), etc.
For example, very important is the characteristic of novelty of object and subject of capture. It influences the nature of capture and the amount of expenditures (efforts) necessary for the implementation of it. With business, for example, an important characteristic of the product is the novelty of this product and the novelty of this product’s consumer. Similar classification affects the levels of creative activity[29]: it depends upon the novelty of the problem being solved and the novelty of proposed solution. Even if we take simply clear water and add a little bit salt into it (salt being a new element for this system) it will quickly get dissolved. Later on, the saturation will take place and salt won’t get dissolved any longer (they “don’t want” to capture it).
When the models of capture are being classified and its efficiency is being found, the characteristic of subject of capture stability could be very important: does it need stable expenditures for self-preservation or no, taking into account this or that habitation medium and state characterizing this subject. For example, for the existence of a tree (for example, oak) constant exchange with the medium is needed as well as energy expenditures. The same tree in wintertime, when the frost is strong, could be characterized by absence of exchange and no energy will be spent. It also holds true for the germ (acorn) of this tree, in which the metabolism and exchange of energy with the external environment is also absent until the moment, when the gern begins to grow, being placed into a benefactory environment. 
For the sake of simplicity we analyzed only two interacting systems in the reaction of capture. It is clear that in reality it could be only a set of subjects and objects of capture, acting within the scope of certain time and space.
While modeling one and the same capture process several models simultaneously could be used, not one. This is associated not so much with the modeling process (or different approaches to it) than with different processes, which develop simultaneously during the evolution of one phenomenon. For example, the crusades of Alexander the Great: they implied the use of fairly different techniques and methods of capture (conquest) from forced conquests to marriages to the representatives of influential families. From destruction to assimilation. It was the flexibility in the use of different kinds of capture that made the crusade of Alexander the Great so successful.
 
This is quite possible that the number of typical capture models spreads beyond the scope, about which we wrote. Additional research is needed. However, this is already clear that the number of such models and types of capture is not so high. It enables to find common regularities in the evolution of fairly different systems, which are similar in terms of capture types. The processes, which are described in different fields using different terms, in reality have common regularities of evolution. We shall try to quote several examples below. 
 
7. Principle of growth of variety and the dubious nature of capture processes
One of the obligatory conditions of capture process is the presence of something, which captures (subject) and of something what is being captured (object). In some cases, as it is known, it is not possible to clearly say, who captures whom. Another thing is important – there should be two different systems. Even if these two systems are absolutely identical, they are still different at least by the fact that one of them is located in one place and another – in a different place. Capture needs differences, non-uniformity and variety – these are necessary (though insufficient) conditions for capture processes.
Is it possible to find such a situation, when there is no non-uniformity, while variety is simply missing? Everything is identical and nothing can capture anything. Yes, such a situation is known. This is the moment prior to the Great Explosion, which gave the impetus to the generation of the Universe. At this moment everything is uniform, and either everything is already captured, or there is nothing to capture. This is one of the manifestations of dubious character of capture process - if everything is captured, the evolution will stop and there will be no capture at all.
At the moment of the Great Explosion the first “non-uniform entities” are formed – the particles, which start to interact one with another and be captured one by another.
At the same time the evolution and formation of space and time develops. In particular, it accounts for different paradoxes, associated with endless density of the substance at the moment of the Great Explosion (to determine the density, the weight should be divisible into zero, since this point has zero dimensions). There is no zero dimension at this moment, since the very space soes not yet exist. It evolves and is formed together with the evolution of the substance itself. Since the moment of origination of space and time and the beginning of their evolution (time and space develop like fields and substances do) the capture processes strt. Physical and other fields are formed, which enable the capture processes to develop.
The dubious nature of capture processes manifests itself in the fact that with the evolution of capture, the number of objects for capture does not get lower, but increases. For example, a proton captured electron. The number of objects of capture has become explicitly higher, non-uniformity was enhanced. Now hydrogen itself can take part in the processes of capture both as an object and subject of capture.
It is known that during the Great Explosion the distribution of thrown-out energy and substance was also non-uniform, it was not strictly distributed throughout the entire internal space. It became one of the reasons or conditions for the formation of galaxies. However, the galaxies, formed as a result of evolution of the Universe, themselves, as it became clear, (Example 1) became a new object and simultaneously a subject of capture processes.
An extreme case of non-uniformity is the opposition. Bi-systems with opposed characteristics are rather strong, because they create an excellent ground for capture rections. We shall give only two quotations:
“Natural selection… leads to divergence of features; the higher number of living creatures populates the same territory, the more they are different in structure and way of life” (Charles Darwin).
“The entire territory of life on Earth could be looked upon on the whole as one system of divergences. The intensification of differences leads to still more stable structural relationships” (..Bogdanov).
As a result of process, as a result of which one system captures another one, object of capture should loose something in terms of its integrity, in the potential of its development. The dubious nature of capture also consists in the fact that the object of capture could efficiently use its capturer for development. Such bonds are well-known in different ecological niches. For example, some animal ate the fruit from some bush or a tree. As a result of quite logical processes the bone (semen) of this plant will be distributed throughout the territory and “planted” together with the fertilizer for the sake of "capture" of new territories by this plant. The capture is of dubious nature. Allow me to quote two more examples.
Example 16. "Perish" of Maya civilization.
The photograph is featuring a Pyramid temple of Maya civilization in Tikale.[30]
“In order to study the lost civilization of Maya it was very important to decipher the language of this people. It became possible to do that, mainly, with the aid of two documents:
- the manuscript "Report on Things in Yukatan" relating to the times of conquest of Maya Indians,  where,  in particular, a reduced Maya alphabet was quoted and CONVERTED into the SPANISH lettering;
- records of old myths (Chilam Balam books), made in the 16th century in LATIN LETTERS and reflecting the Maya language of the beginning of our era.
It is also necessary to add the modern (living) languages of Maya and Spain to that as well as the information on the Spanish language of the 16th century.
This is curious to note that the “black box’ of the Maya civilization has reached us in the form of bi-systems:  first of all these are the Maya cities with temples, inscriptions on them, pictures, drawings as well as the key to explanation of them – the alphabet, which was just mentioned by us...
Example of a "black box" of old Maya civilization leads to an interesting thought. The thing is that the manuscript “Report on Things in Yukatan” – the main, most complete and exact document on the ancient civilization – was compiled by the Spanish bishop Diego de Landa. It was under his guidance that almost entire literary and other legacy of the Maya people was destroyed (it was for this kind of activity that Landa got his bishop’s rank). The manuscript of Landa is a kind of a report to the authorities concerning the work performed on the extermination of heresy. It gave birth to a curious hypothesis: the reason leading to the catastrophe (for example, the Spaniards in the person of Diego de Landa) ITSELF creates a “black box” (famous manuscript of the bishop). The second document - a key to the deciphering of Maya texts -  “Chilam Balam books”, written in Latin alphabet, - have approximately the same origination as the manuscript of Landa. The Spaniards prohibited Maya to use their native alphabet and they started to write their texts in Latin letters, which was allowed. This is the same situation: the Spaniards through their prohibitions made Maya create a document, which was understandable for the descendants”[31].
 
Example 17. Vesuvius and Pompei.
”Vesuvius was a picturesque mountain. If then, in the year 79 A.C., someone would say that the peaceful Vesuvius was a volcano, which would cause an inimitable catastrophe for the cities located around it, the citizens of Pompei would laugh at him.
On august 24, of the year 79 ten thousand people lost their lives, which was a tragic payment for their carelessness: the “cork” of lava, which had been blocking the mouth of the volcano Vesuvius, burst into the air and pieces of rocks flew at the height of several kilometers and then the top of the hill exploded with a horrible roaring sound. The black cloud covered the Sun and for three days hanged above the place of the catastrophe. People perished under the flow of stones, choked in hot sulphur smoke, they were covered by ashes and burnt by melted lava. Pompei disappeared under the 7- 8 meter layer of ashes and rocks, which continuously flew over the streets and houses. Herculanum was covered by hot lava and boiling dirt.
For several days the citizens, who remained alive, tried to find their things, digging the ruines and heaps of volcano ashes, but soon they deserted their native town. The board of inquirers from Rome came to the conclusion that all three cities perished. After the board members drew away it became silent on the island, where Vesuvius was still producing clouds of smoke. Several centuries later nothing reminded of the fact that Pompeii, Gerculanum and Stabia had existed here.
Only in the 18th century they were discovered – quite incidentally – and excavations started. Ancient cities and the objects found in them as well as works of art enabled modern people to deeper understand the culture and to know the way of life of ancient Romans.
The citizens of Pompeii, buried under the ashes, perished from choking. However, the caverns in the layer of hardened ahses, where their bodies were previously, for many years retained the shape and postures of the poor victims’ bodies. When these caverns were filled with a solution of gypsum, the people saw sculptural images of the dead.”[32]
In the photographs one could see the city of Naples and volcano of Vesuvius, while another photograph features a sculpture of the dog, covered by the ashes of Vesuvius. Thus, the collar of the dog, which lived in the year of 79, can be seen.
Vesuvius (according to our terminology - subject of capture), which seemed to have destroyed ancient cities of Italy forever, in reality enriched us with a detailed information not only about these cities, but also anout people, animals, household articles, which existed there almost 2 thousand years ago.
The dubious nature of capture phenomenon manifests itself in many situations, in fairly different systems. For example, in aikido and in many other kinds of wrestling, the force of the attacking opponent for resisting the attack.
 
8. Capture at the level of supersystems and subsystems, philogenesis and onthogenesis.
The processes of capture develop at different system levels. An example is, for instance, an organization, which is incorporated in a certain holding. This organization itself is occupied with capture processes within the scope of its activities, occupying a certain niche at the market, as well in the struggle for a more profitable position inside the holding. Business-holding as a supersystem structure, also forms the market, necessary for all holding participants and creates the basis for the broadening of such market. Similar processes develop at the subsystem level: departments and individual employees tend not only to preserve their positions, but also, if possible, to broaden them within the scope of the organization.
Similar situations occur not only in social systems, but also in ecosystems, and in engineering systems, as well as in star systems and in any other systems.
It is noteworthy that one and the same component, for example, a department of the company, takes part in several capture processes at several levels simultaneously. It could lead to contradictions.
Examples of captures at the level of onthogenesis (individual evolution) were already quoted by us: gravitational capture of Neptune (Example 3), capture by amoeba of edible substances (Example 4), etc.  
A capture at the level of philogenesis could be illustrated by an example with the exit of plants and animals to the land from the sea (Example 6). It is clear, that during the process of adaptation to the conditions of land many sea weeds and animals died. By the way their death particularly could become a resource for gradual forming of the soil, and – based on this soil – of first plants, growing on earth. A defeat at the level of onthogenesis appears to be a victory at the level of philogenesis. Travellers and explorers of everything new, worriers, defending their land and a mother protecting her child – these are all examples of a readability to “concede” at the level of onthogenesis for the sake of a victory at the level of philogenesis.
 
9. Capture as a source of contradictions.
The thought, which is rendered in this section, is quite simple. We shall talk about the attempts to explain, why contradictions occur, on which the evolution of systems is based. Already more than 2500 years ago Herakletes of Ethes wrote about the contradictions. A lot of research has been carried out and many publications rolled off the press in connection with the role of contradictions in the evolution process and about the overcoming of these contradictions. But why do contradictions occur? Due to what features of the systems do they appear?
From the standpoint of capture principle, the source of contradictions is the collision of different capture processes; different requirements to one element made by capture processes of different levels as well as contradictions occurring during the construction of functional-and-technological chains of capture.  
If the capture is an inseparable feature of the system, the growing variety is a condition and at the same time a consequence of capture processes, while the origination of contradictions is a constant and obligatory companion to system evolution. Different groups of contradictions dominate with different types of systems.
Absorption of new resources requires from the system to solve a huge set of inventive problems (in the direct meaning of the word). 
Example 18. Complex of problems for the plants to enter earth.
 “In order to get adapted to new conditions of life on Earth , many plants had to fundamentally change their anatomic structure. Thus, for example, plants had to acquire external epidermal skin layer in order to be protected from loss of moisture and from drying; their lower portions had to be converted into wood and become a kind of a support framework, in order to be opposed to the force of gravity, which was so tangible after the exit from water. Their roots went down into the soil, where they could get water and nutritious substances. Therefore, the plants had to develop a network of channels for the delivery of these substances to the upper portions of their bodies. Besides, they needed fruitful soil, while a condition for that was the vital activity of numerous organisms staying in the soil, as well as bacteria, blue-and-green water weeds, fungi, lichens and soil animals. Products of upper portions as well as the dead bodies of these organisms gradually converted crystal-like rocks into fruitful soil, which is able to feed progressing plants.” [33].
Each inventive problem, which is solved by the system in the course of its evolution, is probably a complex of contradictions. This is one of the numerous examples:
Example 19. Photosynthesis with plants in the desert.
“With plants, growing in different habitation areas, different types of photosynthesis were developed in the course of evolution – a result of adaptation to the environment. 2, absorbed by photosynthesis, enters the leaves through the holes, which are called orifices. Part of water contained in the plants, inevitably gets evaporated through these orifices. If the leaves of the plant loose water quicker than the roots deliver it from the soil, the plant starts to fade. The orifices are somewhat covered thereby, which decreases the loss of water, however reduces the amount of 2 entering the leaves. At the same time the enzyme of 3-cycle, catalyzing the adjoining of 2 to five-carbon sugarfunctions better at high concentrations of 2.
There are plants – they are called 4-plants, - with which photosynthesis develops better even at low concentrations of 2.”
“With some plants there is one more way of capturing carbon dioxide – so-called acid metabolism of Crassulaceae (abbreviated: CAM[34]). This way is characteristic mainly of cactei, different kinds of spurges and other succulents (i.e., plants with thick leaves and stalks, able to save water), adapted to the conditions of desert. -plants save water in the strictest possible way. During the daytime, when it is hot, their mouths are closed and they are opened only at night, when the water evaporates slower. It puts them, however, into a rather awkward position, because the light, which is necessary for photosynthesis exists only in the daytime, while the mouths, through which 2, comes, which is necessary for photosynthesis, are open only at night. -way of photosynthesis solves this problem, offering the plants an opportunity to capture 2 at night in the form of organic acids, and then to use 2 separated from these acids, in order to synthesize hydrocarbons.”[35].
Comment Example 19. In its tendency to capture the area of deserts, which are new for the plants, they encounter a contradiction. Mouths (orifices) of plants should be small, so that water should not evaporate under the conditions of hot weather, and should be big, so that 2 should penetrate through them. The contradiction is resolved in time. At night the mouths are open (moisture does not evaporate, because of the coolness of the night) and 2 are captured in the form of organic acids. Hydrocarbons are synthesized in the daytime, when the Sun is shining, from the accumulated acids.
 
Principle of capture enables to explain the tendency of systems to enhancement of variety, increase of the number of species (based on opposition principle), formation of supersystems and generation of contradictions in the course of evolution. It enables to integrate in one logical chain the phenomena, which earlier had never seemed to be interconnected and to create the generalized models of evolution for different evolving systems.
Three types of evolving processes could be singled out in evolving systems as well as three sources of contradictions. 
1. Self-evolving processes and systems. They could be characterized by contradictions between a tendency to capture at different system levels: system – external medium; system - supersystem; system - subsystem; philogenesis – ontogenesis, etc. Self-evolution, evolution for the sake of evolution itself, and self-sufficient nature of systems are characteristic for this type of development. They could change fairly quickly and change the surrounding environment, domination of capture processes is characteristic of them.
2. Function-oriented processes and systems. They are characteristic of systems, which are oriented at the performance of some functions, required for self-evolving systems. These are function-oriented engineering systems, and different theories, art, individual organs of animals. These are not independent systems, though they are capable of performing certain functions, necessary for self-evolving systems. These processes and the systems which support them are characterized by contradictions between the requirements of function and their carriers.
3. “Brick processes” and “Brick Systems” (substance). Their main specific feature is the ability to enter other systems and supersystems through their constituents, without any serious losses for themselves. They preserve their integrity even in case of decomposition of function-oriented or self-evolving systems, a part of which they could be. They are characterized by the absence of some main function. The processes of self-preservation or minimization of expenditures could dominate. With these systems internal bonds dominate over the external ones. The evolution processes are passive, main contradictions are associated with the acquisition of features and properties, which could be demanded for by other types of systems. 
In evolving systems, as a rule, all three types of processes and systems are to be found, however, some of them could dominate. For example, a system, which had emerged as a functional one with the flow of time could acquire the traits of a self-evolving one, loosing the dominating character of the main function. Depending upon the dominating processes this or that system could be self-evolving, function-oriented or constitute a “brick-system”. Moreover, during onthogenesis or philogenesis one system could take the form of different types of evolving systems. For example, some microorganisms, having generated in nature independently, as self-evolving systems, in the course of time got adapted to the medium of the animal organism, performing the functions, which are necessary for that animal, and now are not multiplied outside this organism. 
An important conclusion could be drawn from the quoted typization: the number of ”bricks” will always be higher than the number of function-oriented systems, and the number of the latter will always be higher than the number of self-evolving systems. All three types of evolving systems form something like an ecological pyramid. The number of function-oriented systems will always be higher than the number of self-evolving ones at least out of the reason, that the same functions could alternatively be performed by different subsystems according to different principles. Plants and animals could capture ocean and land as long as they wish, however, the amount of different chemical elements does not change due to that, these elements are merely redistributed between the systems. The number of facts – “bricks” for the theory is always higher than the number of these theories.
 
10. Principle of capture and the trends of engineering evolution.
The system of Trends of engineering systems evolution (TESE), developed by G.S.Altshuller[36] was one of the most popular ones. Schematically this system of trends is presented at the diagram below.
Trends of kinematics (increase of ideality, irregularity of evolution, transition to supersystem) are completely derived from the principle of capture and variety. Tendency to ideal end result (there is no system, however, its function ism performed) – this is a principle of capture efficiency increase, already described by us. Transition to supersystems is one of the types of capture. It is described in Sections 6 and 8 of the present article. The trend of irregularity of engineering systems evolution speaks about the evolution of engineering systems through generation and overcoming of contradictions. It was already said in Section 9 of the present article. The principle of capture explains the origination of contradictions in the course of engineering systems evolution.
From the standpoint of principle of capture the trends of kinematics of engineering systems evolutioncould be briefly described approximately in the following way. Engineering systems evolve through the capture of available resources. For this purpose, first of all they try to increase the efficiency of their activity (concerning capture) due to the tendency to get an ideal system – there is no engineering systems, while its function is performed. Transition to supersystem is performed for the purpose of broadening the opportunities of the system.
Laws of staticsare providing for laws of kinematics. Trend of completeness of systems parts and their coordination leads to a conclusion that a minimum necessary set of elements is required for the capture, while these elements should be mutually coordinated. To compensate for the expenditures for support and development of systems, it is necessary to provide for conductivity of energy flows and other flows for all components of the engineering system. 
Transition to microlevel enhances the resource potential of the engineering system and enhances its efficiency. Enhancement of Su-Field property leads to enhancement of controllability of engineering systems. It corresponds to the model of fruitful capture (Section 6) and enhancement of influence of supersystem.
Engineering systems belong to the class of function-oriented systems. They are characterized by a model of capture reaction through displacement (substitution) based on the struggle for limiting factor of evolution and the model of fruitful capture.
Based on the proposed approach, the system of engineering systems evolution could be developed further (See the publication "Studies into the laws of engineering evolution"[37]).
With the acquisition of a possibility to create the engineering systems humanity acquired qualitatively broader opportunities for capturing substance and other resources. We wrote already that the exit of plants and animals to the land in principle broadened their opportunities. Nowadays the biomass of oceans, lakes and rivers taken together accounts for less than 0.2% of the entire biomass of the Earth. In its turn, on Earth the entire Weight of the live substance accounts for approximately 0.01 – 0.02% of the bone substance of biosphere "[38]. While the living organisms are strongly restricted in terms of capturing such resources, which are available on Earth, the human, using technology can practically limitlessly capture not only the resources of Earth, but also of the Moon and other planets.
 
11. Principle of capture in the theories of personal psychology.
The study of problems of ethics from the standpoint of psychoanalysis led Erich Fromm to the necessity to consider these issues from the viewpoint of interaction between the human and the “object’ as well as interaction between the human and other people. The form and the methods of capture in these interactions have, as it appeared later, a decisive significance. 
Here is a quotation from E.Fromm’s book "A Human for Himself"[39]:
“The main difference of the theory proposed here from the theory of Freud consists in the fact that the fundamental basis of the human character, in my opinion, does not consist in the libidinous organization of different type, but in the specific relationships between the individual personality and the world. In the course of life the human being enters into specific relationships with the world 1) through learning about things and assimilating them and 2) through relationships with people (and with himself/herself). I call the former “assimilation process”; the latter – socialization process”. Both types of relationships are “open”, not instinctively assigned, as is the case with animals. The human can learn about things, getting them or taking them from external sources or producing them through their own effort. However he should come to know them and top some extent assimilate them, in order to satiate their demands. It should also be born in mind that the human cannot live alone, without connections with other people. He should integrate with other for the sake of protection, for labor, for sexual satisfaction, for game, for bringing up children, for transferring knowledge and material property” (p. 63)
“As it follows from the above, certain similarity should exist between different forms of orientation in the processes of assimilation and socialization respectively. Proposed table reflects the picture of analyzed types of orientation and of the similarity between them.
              
           Assimilation                          Socialization
1. Non-fruitful orientation:
a)      Receptive
(taking)
Masochist (devotion)
Symbiosis
b)         Exploiting
             (Possessive)
Sadistic (Authority)
c)         Proprietary
           (Saving)
Destructive (Persistence)
Alienation
d)         Market
            (Exchanging)
 
II.Fruitful orientation:
Action-related                             Loving                                         Reasonable
 
I will supply only a short comment. Receptive and exploiting orientation in terms of interactions between personalities are different from possessive one. Both receptive and exploiting orientation imply a certain kind of proximity and close contact with people, from which a certain individual would like to receive something required either peacefully or through aggressive means. With receptive orientation the dominating relation is subordination, masochistic relation: if I submit to a stronger individual, he will give me everything, what I need. Another person is perceived as a source of all wealths and in a symbiotic union one gets all necessary things from the other. The exploitation orientation presupposes sadistic type of relationships: if I forcefully get from another person, what I need, I have to rule him and make him a powerless object of my power.
In contrast to both these orientations proprietary orientation implies alienation from other people. It is based not on an expectation to get the things from an external source of all wealths, but on an expectation, that they could be accumulated, without being spent. Any close contact with the external world is a menace for this kind of self-contained safety system. Proprietary character will be prone to solve the problem of interrelations with the others through alienation or — if the external world seems to be huge and menacing — through destruction.
Market orientation is also based on alienation from other people, however, in contrast to proprietary orientation, alienation acquires here rather a friendly, not the destructive form. The very principle of market orientation implies the ease of contacts, superfluous nature of interaction, while the alienation from the others exists only in the deep emotional sphere”. (pp. 110-111)
“The combination of fruitful and non-fruitful orientation requires a more detailed study. There is no human, whose orientation is fully fruitful and there is no human, whose activity is completely devoid of fruitfulness. However the specific weight of fruitful and non-fruitful orientation in the character of each individual varies and is determined by the quality of non-fruitful orientations. In the above-quoted description of non-fruitful orientations we assumed that they dominate in the character. Now we have to augment the description, admitting that certain qualities of non-fruitful orientation are also to be found in the character, where fruitful orientation dominates. Here non-fruitful orientations do not have a negative meaning, as is the case with their domination in the character, while are different by their structural features. In fact, the above-described non-fruitful orientations could be looked upon as distortions of orientations, which are in itself normal and necessary part of life. Each human being, in order to survive has to possess the ability to take things from other people, to take possession of things, to keep and to exchange them. The human has also to possess the ability to follow the authority, to direct other people, to be able to stay alone and to protect his (her) interests.” (p. 112)
It is obvious from the above-quoted passages that the positions of E.Fromm are well coordinated with the principle of capture. For example, receptive and exploiting orientations are actually a pair, coordinated with the second model of capture – reaction of capture with the exchange (including symbiosis) with a possible domination of one of the systems. Proprietary orientation corresponds to “brick-systems”, which have a tendency to reach efficiency via decrease in expenditures and maximally retain their self-contained nature. Market type corresponds to function-oriented systems and the third model of capture – reaction of capture through displacement (substitution) based on the struggle for limiting development factor. Fruitful orientation of a personality corresponds to self-evolving types of evolving systems and to the fourth model of capture – fruitful capture, synthesis of a new system from the elements.
Personality models in the theories of Freud, Maslow and other theories could be analyzed from the unified positions of capture theory.[40]
For example, theory of creative personality evolution (TCPE) [41] is constructed in keeping with the model: creative personality struggles with external circumstances for the attainment of a Dignified Goal. Intentionally or inadvertently creative personality captures the people through his (her) ideas, changes already existing systems. Resistance to these changes are absolutely logical from the viewpoint of self-preservation of these systems. ”Interplay” between creative personality and external circumstances corresponds to the model of capture of the type ”small captures big” (David the Fearless).
 
12. Principle of capture and passionarity in the theories of L.Gumilyov concerning ethnogenesis.
The processes of capture are of great importance for the development of society. No wonder it was reflected in theories concerning the evolution of society. In this section we shall analyze the theory of L.N.Gumilyov concerning ethnogenesis.
 Even the most active critics of the system of L.N.Gumilyov agree with the fact that the notion of passionarity, introduced by him, is very important not only for the theory of ethnogenesis, but also for the evolution of science. We shall supply three quotations from Gumilyov, in which the explanation of passionarity is given[42]:
“…For the sake of scientific analysis we shall propose a new term - passionarity  (from the Latin Passio, ionis, f.), having excluded from its meaning the animal instincts, stimulating the egoistic ethics and caprices, which are symptoms of disbalanced psychic, as well as mental illnesses, because though passionarity is , of course, a deviation from the species norm, however, by no means a pathological one.” (p. 318)
“Thus, passionarity is an ability and tendency to change the surroundings, or, if we reword it in the terms of physics, -- to the violation of inertia of aggregate state of the environment. The pulse of passionarity can be so strong that the carriers of this feature – passionary people cannot make themselves forecast the consequences of their actions. This is a very important circumstance, pointing out that passionarity is not an attribute of conscience but of the subconscious, it’s an important feature, expressed in the specific nature of constitution of higher nervous activity. Degrees of passionarity are different, but in order that it should have such manifestations, which are visible and fixed by history, it is necessary that the number of passionary people should be high, i.e. this feature is not only individual, but also population-related.” (p. 324)
It should be explicit from these quotations that L.N.Gumilyov cannot define the term “passionarity” to say nothing of explaining its nature, if, of course, we don’t regard the utterance of “the violation of inertia of aggregate state of the environment” to be an explanation. It is not clear from the quotations, for what purpose is this “tendency to change the environment” is necessary and, probably, a warning is given (in case something is misunderstood) that passionarity is not a “mental illness” , though it is “a deviation from the species norm , however not a pathological one”.
In a much more efficient and bright way does L.N.Gumilyov explain the notion of “passionarity” based on particular examples. We shall give one more quotation:
“Alexander the Great (according to his inherent rights) had everything, that the human actually needs: food, lodging, amusements and even conversations with Aristotheles. And nevertheless he attacked Beothia, Illiria and Thrakia only because of the fact that they did not want to assits him in the war against Persia, while he purpoted to wish to take his revenge for the losses brought along with Greek-Persian wars, about which the Greeks themselves long forgot[43]. And then, after victory over the Persians he attacked the Middle Asia and India, and the senselessness of the latter war sent the Macaedonians into rage. After a brilliant victory over Porus “those, who were modest, only bemoaned their fate, but others declared firmly that they won’t follow Alexander..." (Arrianus. V. 26). Finally Ken, son of Polemocrates, collected his bravery and said: "You see yourself, how many Macaedonians and hellines went with you and how many of them remained. Even the Hellenes, whom you made populate the cities foundered by you, did not do it out of their free will... Some of them perished in battles, others were scattered somewhere in Asia. Still higher number of people died from diseases; not many people remained, and they were out of their strength, while spiritually they were still more tired. All who have parents are nostalgic about them; they are nostalgic about wives and children, as well as about their native land, and their nostalgic feelings could be understood, they were poor, when they left, and now, enriched by you, they thirst to see their own land, having become influential and important people. Don’t lead soldiers against their will" (Arrianus. V. 27). This is the viewpoint of a clever man, who takes into account the mood of the army and embodies this mood. One cannot help admitting that according to all provisions of real politics Ken was right, but it was not his mind, but the irrationality of Alexander’s behavior played important role in the generation of the phenomenon, which is now called “Hellenism” and the great role in the ethnogenesis of the Middle East does not cause any doubts.” (p.322)
From the standpoint of principle of capture it is absolutely obvious that passionarity is a manifestation of features of any system, any substance – a tendency to capture. The last quotation is most illustrative in terms of contradictions between a tendency to capture at the level of system (“they thirst to see their own land, having become influential and important people”) and supersystems – ethnos, which the Macaedonians had represented. Alexander the Great had set his own goals of capture – to be equal to gods. Victories of Alexander for him were a tool for “mounting” the Olympus populated by the gods – a comparison could be drawn with the heroic deeds of Herakles. Alexander attained his goal. His name is remembered better than those of many Grecian gods.
Gumilyov in vain sought for some unknown sources of passionarity, ascribing the features of a certain physical field to it. A tendency to capture is also an obligatory feature of any system, like the presence of elements and bonds between them in the system. Ability to capture is one of the new qualities of system-based integration. If this feature is not generated, the system is simply not preserved and is captured by other systems, which have this feature.
The force of passionary pushes of capture is not contained in the character of the mad passionary people, but in the relationship between the new way of capture and the presence of appropriate resources for this capture. If the situation dictated that dominoes were arranged in a row or the tubs with gunpowder were located not far one from another, one does not need to be a genius in order to trigger the chain reaction of the process … 
Needless to say that the analysis of ethnogenesis theory from the viewpoint of capture and variety principles could be much deeper and more detailed.
 
13. Principle of capture and theories of historic development of the human society.
Irt could seem strange that until today there is no accurate traditional model describing historical evolution of the human society. Nowadays it is possible to single out three main approaches[44] to forming such a model: formations-related (based on succession of social formations), civilization-oriented (based on the evolution of individual civilizations), culture-based (implying the evolution of individual cultures).
The elements of historical evolution of the society[45] are:
- socio-historical organisms (tribes, families, countries);
- systems of socio-historical organisms (historical regions)
- society on Earth taken as a whole (is admitted only in formation-based approach).
Social-and-economic formation is a type of society, including a certain type (method) of manufacturing as well as institutions of power and forms of social conscience preconditioned by this manufacturing method. In his early works Marx had singled out five social-and – economic formations: primeval, Asian, slave-owning, feudal, capitalist. Formation-based approach implies successive linear development of society from one stage to another. As of today not a single country is known, which passed all indicated stages of social-and-economic formations. Th existence of Asian formation is considered to be doubtful.
Civilizational approach was proposed by Arnold Toynbee (1889 - 1975). To the main civilizations refer (referred): Shumer, Babylonian, Minoi, Hellenistic (Greek), Chinese, Indian, Islam, Christian and other civilizations. Toynbee thought that the number of local (national) civilizations, which are worthy of attention, was about 30 throughout the entire period of human history (American, German, Russian, etc.). This approach does not imply the existence of planetary civilization and respectively does not analyze the regularities in the evolution of humanity as a whole.
Culture-based approach was first proposed by the German philosopher Oswald Spengler (1880 — 1936). Culture is a set of religions, traditions, manifestations of material and spiritual life. Culture is an autonomous, self-contained, closed and isolated reality. Culture is born, lives and dies. The notion of “culture” in Spengler’s sense is close to the notion of "civilization" with Toynbee, however “civilization” with Spengler has other meanings than with Toynbee. Civilization in the scope of culture-based approach is the highest level of cultural evolution, completing the period of culture development and preceding its death.
Totally Spengler singled out eight cultures: Indian, Chinese, Babylonian, Egyptian, Ancient, Arabian, Russian, West European. Such culture-based approach was especially popular in Europe in the first half of the 20th century.
Another basis for classification of stages of social evolution could be based on stages of manufacturing development, enabling to divide the societies into: agrarian, industrial, post-industrial and informational.
Each of the quoted approaches has quite serious contradictions and shortcomings, the study of which is beyond the scope of the present article.
It is necessary to note that the approach from the standpoint of capture principle requires that historical development of society should be looked upon in the context of whole evolution of humanity on the planet. Development of geological, biochemical, ecosystems-based and many other processes on Earth starts only with the generation of the society. Historical principles of society evolution should be characterized by a clear logical association with other global processes,which developed and are developing on Earth during all that time.
Even a brief analysis of proposed historical types of society shows that in many respects they could be characterized by capture models, which dominate in the given society. For example, reaction of capture with absorption could correspond to the slavery formation, while a reaction of capture with exchange – to the feudal formation. Reaction of capture via displacement (substitution) based on the struggle for limiting factor of development is most probably close to a capitalist formation, while fruitful capture rather refers to post-industrial and information society.
From the standpoint of capture principle the type of manufacturing is the type of capturing the bone substance of the planet. Institutions of power is a method of capture and mutual capture in the society. The forms of social conscience are complexes of such theories, which could take possession of the human minds. All processes of capture on Earth and within the society, in particular, interact one with another, forming a unified system.
Logics of capture principle enables to describe from one and the same standpoint the interrelations of the type human-human, human-family, human-society, society-nature (environment), society-technology (manufacturing), culture-nature, etc. The notion of efficiency of system-based capture, first introduced in the present article enables to compare different socio-historical systems, as well as to trace historical evolution of individual civilizations: their youth, maturity and old age.
One of the problems of historical systematics of society development is forecasting. Already known models perform this function utterly inefficiently. The model based on the evolution of not only social material, but also of live and non-live substance on the whole, could have a more explicit prognostic properties.
The model of historical development of society from the viewpoint of capture principle has not yet been developed. However, already now it is visible that the forecast of civilization development based on interaction of society, engineering and nature suits this concept pretty well. Such forecast[46] was prepared in 1988. It deals with issues of development not only of technology, but also of social-and-psychological state of society, technology of creative activity, art evolution. In 1990 an interesting forecast was made within the scope of this conception[47]: “Technology and habitation medium are trimmed in a NEW (Natureless Engineering World). Integration of technology and art is also known — this is design. Theoreticians of design start to modestly pass from shaping objects of everyday life (traditional field of design) to organizing some kinds of closed space (interiors, exhibition space). In Italy an attempt is being made to develop principles of urban design. Continuing this line we enter the level of designing a planet and the Universe”.
In 1995 the French photographer Jan-Artus-Betrand invented a project “The World from Above”[48]. His exhibitions were visited by 60 million people in 40 countries of the world. Here is only one photograph from numerous shots taken from the height of the bird flight”. In many respects it reminds of a canvas of an abstract painter, but in reality this is a Great Prismatic Gayser, Yellowstone national park, Wyoming, USA(44°26’ Northern latitude — 110°39’Eastern longitude).
Construction of a model of society evolution from the viewpoints of capture principle should not only describe the known facts from human history, not only forecast in general the subsequent stages of society history, but also offer an idea of the future constituents of life: technology, art, science, ethics and other socially oriented systems.
 
14.Conclusions.
Proposed model of analyzing the evolution of systems naturally requires additional study and refinement. Many assertions require verification, formation of topical cards collections and the wording of these assertions needs refinement. Only preliminary conclusions could be drawn as yet.
1. Numerous examples of evolution of systems of various nature show that the evolving systems are characterized by a feature, which could with a certain degree of convenience denoted with the word "capture" or "system capture".
2. Principle of capture implies simultaneously the presence of non-uniformity or variety within evolving systems. The higher the level of non-uniformity and variety, the more possibilities are opened for capture. The more intense the processes of system-based capture are, the higher the level of variety is. Within this evolution process constantly grows the level of system, at which the capture processes develop.
3. Principle of capture enables to single out the models of reaction of capture and types of evolving systems, which constitute a certain pyramid: “brick systems”, function-oriented systems and self-evolving systems.
4. Principle of capture enables to analyze fairly different evolving systems and theories, which describe different forms of evolving substance from the same standpoints, it will simplify the problem of perceiving the world in its unity and solve creative problems concerning the evolution of the world.
Theory of system-based capture, which is now only at the stage of forming, is necessary, first of all not as such, but as a tool for studying the laws of evolution of material and non-material systems. Capture theory could become one of the tools for forming the theory of evolution of substance and models (TESM).
 


[1] Rubin M.S. On Theory of Developing of Material Systems (TDMS). ETRIA World Conference “TRIZ Future 2002”, 6-8 November 2002, Strasbourg, France
[6] Fagocytosis – the process of active capture and absorption of live and non-live particles by unicellular organisms or special cells (fagocytes) of multicellular animal organisms (BSE).
[8] The word “Hellenism” is traditionally applied to cultures, which originated as a consequence to campaigns of Alexander, where Hellenistic elements mingled with Eastern ones.
[9] Psylophytes (Psilophyta, from the Greek psilós — naked and phytón — plant), rhyniophytes, a branch of dead higher plants, the remainders of which are known in Silur, lower and middle Devon. P. Are characterized by: dichotomic branching of stalks, absence of leaves and roots (hence the name), presence of sporangii at the ends of branches, homosporic structure, thin central cylinder (stele) with a protoxylema in its center , the stalks are covered with epidermis with mouths. P. Are considered to be a primitive group, which gave birth to higher cormophytes. http://www.booksite.ru/fulltext/1/001/008/093/935.htm , BSE.
[10]Crossopterygii — a superorder of fishes, old and almost completely dead group of fishes. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BF%D1%91%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%B5
[11] More detailed information about this could be found, for example, in the book by K.Yu.Yesskov “History of Earth and of Life on Earth”. http://www.paleo.ru/paleonet/publications/eskov3.html or http://www.paleo.ru/paleonet/publications/eskov/08.html 
 
[12] Formally the law is not violated, but the owners loose their rights or their property.
[13] That’s how the professionals are called, who, using any possible week point of the enterprise, are ready to change the owner. There is an opinion that the raiders are as useful for the business, as packs of wolves are for preserving the health of the deer, hares and other populations.
[14] The concept of natureless engineering world (NEW) was first described in the publication of G.S.Altshuller and M.S.Rubin «What will happen after the final victory. Eight thoughts on nature and engineering”, 1987.
[15] BSE, New Astrological Encyclopedia http://encyclopedia.astrologer.ru/
[17] “Interconversion of elements”, Boris Kazakov http://n-t.proc.ru/ri/kz/pe.htm
[18] Big encyclopedia «History of human society», articles "Eras and Calendars"
[19] MITRA, article from the “Brockhaus und Efron”, as well as “Big encyclopedia of Cyryllus and Methodius”.
[20]Afanasiev .. "Poetical outlooks of Slavs concerning nature " (M., 1865); .. "The Gods of ancient slavs" (Saint-Petersburg, issue I, 1884).
[22] BSE
[23] M.N. Botvinnik et.al., “Lives of Famous greeks and Romans”, Moscow, “Prosveschenije publishers”, 1988, p. 15
[24] From the article “scoutism” in BSE, edition of 1970-1977.
[27] Manual of a director of a small enterprise in Karelia. Issue.1/ foundation of support and development of small enterprises in Carelian Republic; compiled by: .S.Rubin – Petrozavodsk: “Skandinavia”, 2004.
[29] G.S.Altshuller, I.M.Vertkin “The Way to Become a Genius. Life Strategy of Creative Personality”, 1994.
[33] Web-site "Everythinjg about higher education" www.examen.ru - project of the company Begin Group 
[34] From the English: “Crassulaceae acid metabolism”.
[35] Kemp P., Arms K. «Introduction to Biology”, translated from English. – M.: “Mir publishers”, 1988, pp. 310-311
[36] G.S.Altshuller, Creative activity as an exact science, M., “Soviet radio”, 1979
[37] M.Rubin  "Studies on the trends of engineering evolution.", TRIZ-Summit-2006, Saint-Petersburg, http://temm.ru/ru/section.php?docId=3432
[39] ErichFromm. A human for itself. Research of psychological problems. Translated from English by L.A.Chernysheva, Minsk, Collegium, 1992.
 
[40] Salvatore R. Maddi. Theories of personality: comparative analysis, Saint-Petersburg, Rech publishers, 2002.
[41] G.S.Altshuller, I.M.Vertkin. “How to become a genius. Life strategy of creative personality.”, 1994.
[42] L.N.Gumilyov. “Ethnogenesis and Biosphere of Earth”, M.: DI-DIK Institute” ,1977.
[43] Arrianus. The Campaign of Alexander the Great /Transl. By M.E.Sergienko. M.; L., 1962. II. 14.4; III. 18.12
[44]the review was made using the publication of A.Jakushev “Philosophy” (epitome of lectures) SEE section “Philosophy of history”.http://www.gumer.info/bogoslov_Buks/Philos/Jakushev/pril.php?show_comments
[45] A Concept of World History. Yu.I.Semyonov, March 2004, http://www.situation.ru/app/j_artp_337.htm
 
[46] G.S.Altshuller, M.S.Rubin. “What would happen after the final victory. Eight thoughts on nature and technology”. http://temm.ru/ru/section.php?docId=3470
[47] Yu.S.Murashkovsky, “Art” is from the word “techne”, 1990, TRIZ magazine, No. 1.
 
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